Good, awful, and uncertain

National Family Health Survey-5 was conducted during 2019-21 . The results are estimated by using two surveys that were separated by four years .

During 2019-21, the National Family Health Survey-5 was conducted.In 2015-16, the previous survey (NHFS-4) was conducted.Both surveys were conducted during the tenure of the NDA government; therefore, the differences between the two surveys reflect the impact of the policies adopted until 2014-15 as well as the government's policies.Like the previous survey, the key indicators of NFHS-5 include the demographics and the characteristics of households, literacy, marriage and fertility, maternal and child health, vaccinations, quality of medical services, anaemia, women's empowerment, and alcohol use.

Since the survey sampling method was the same, the result, which statisticians refer to as the DELTA, reveals some useful lessons.Some improvements will make us proud, some will depress us, and some will spark fears and concerns.Further news: The Total Fertility Rate has dropped from 2.2 (children per woman) to 2.0.The substitution rate is 2.1.The number 2.0 has positive as well as negative benefits that necessitate a separate article.

88.6 percent of children were born in an institution (that is, under some kind of medical treatment), up from 78.9 percent.More girl children are being welcomed into families, especially in rural India.The sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) has increased from 991 to 1020.Although 88.0 percent of the population had electricity in 2015-16, the Modi government added 8.8 percent to make the figure 96.8 percent (Rome wasn't built in a day, as claimed).

Not-so-good news: More than half of India's population did not complete ten years of primary education, according to the big, breaking news.8 percent of men are male.After 75 years of independence, one-half of the population is unable to work in industries and industries of the 21st century that require higher education, advanced technology, and advanced skills.While India's population is still young (26.5 percent below age 15), the percentage is decreasing, meaning that the number of older people is increasing.

The overwhelming majority of women were anaemic, 57.0 percent in the age group 15-49, and, much more worryingly, 50.1 percent in the age group 15-19.Since NFHS-4, both groups have increased.The other sad news is that only 11.3% of children aged 6-23 months received a balanced diet.According to the survey, 31.1% of children under the age of 5 years were underweight; 35.5% were stunted; 19.3 percent were wasted; and 7.7 percent were grossly over wasted.

According to the results, 95.9 percent of the population lives in households with a clean drinking water source.A filtered water source, a public toilet, or a tube well are all referred to in the footnote.These are fine, but when the wording includes a protected dug well, a protected spring, and rainwater, it is clear that an elaborate effort was made to include age-old, unprotected sources of water to achieve a figure of 95.9 percent.I suspect this would be the penultimate step before declaring that the target year of 2024 for providing individual household taps to all households has been achieved.It is also difficult to obtain research on the benefits of an upgraded sanitation system.

The figure refers to LPG or piped gas connections, not the actual number that uses LPG cylinders.Most millions of people are impoverished due to fluctuating growth rates, and many are now living in absolute poverty.Consider only one indicator, namely, food intake.Food is the first expense for a household.If a substantial number of women are anaemic, and a significant number of children are underweight or anaemic, as well as many children are stunted or wasted, it is due to a lack of proper nutrition.

The present administration has forgotten those unworthy individuals, the children of a lesser god.P Chidambaram, the former Finance Minister of India....